Assessment Part 1 SENSATIONAL SIX WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE: ( ITS FLUENCY ONLY BUT THE CONCLUSION IS ABOUT ALL. HOW THEY ARE INTERRELATED. 4. Conclusion (Explanation of the importance of the interrelationship between oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. May be presented as a paragraph or a meme.)



The Interrelationship between Oral Language, Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension: An Analytical Perspective


In the field of reading instruction, there has been a longstanding debate among researchers and educators about the most effective approaches to develop and enhance reading fluency. One approach that has gained significant attention is the Sensational Six, which emphasizes the interrelationship between oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. This essay aims to explore the importance of the interrelationship between these components in reading instruction.

Interrelationship between the Sensational Six:

Oral Language:
Oral language refers to the ability to understand and use spoken language effectively. It lays the foundation for reading through the development of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse skills (Dickinson & Neuman, 2006).

Phonological Awareness:
Phonological awareness is the understanding and manipulation of the sounds of spoken language. It includes skills such as rhyming, blending, segmenting, and manipulating sounds (Gillon, 2018).

Phonics is the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent. It involves teaching students the correspondence between phonemes (individual speech sounds) and graphemes (letters or groups of letters) (Johnson et al., 2018).

Fluency is the ability to read text accurately, quickly, and with appropriate expression. It encompasses word recognition, rate, and prosody (Rasinski & Hoffman, 2009).

Vocabulary refers to the words that a person knows and understands. A strong vocabulary is crucial for reading comprehension as it enables students to comprehend the meaning of words in context (Biemiller, 2010).

Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading, involving understanding, interpreting, and making meaning from text. It requires the integration of all the other components, as well as background knowledge (NRP, 2000).


The interrelationship between oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension is crucial in reading instruction. Each component relies on and supports the others, creating a synergistic effect that enhances reading ability. Developing strong oral language skills prepares students for phonological awareness and phonics instruction, which in turn improves their fluency. Fluent reading allows for greater focus on vocabulary and comprehension, leading to a deeper understanding of text. Therefore, a balanced and integrated approach to reading instruction that addresses the Sensational Six is essential for fostering proficient readers.


Biemiller, A. (2010). Vocabulary development and reading comprehension. Handbook of reading research, 4(2), 323-444.

Dickinson, D. K., & Neuman, S. B. (2006). Handbook of early literacy research. Guilford Press.

Gillon, G. T. (2018). Phonological awareness: From research to practice. Guilford Publications.

Johnson, C., Haughton, E., Dimino, J., Altieri, J., & Reed, R. (2018). The reading teacher’s word-a-day: 180 ready-to-use lessons to expand vocabulary, teach roots, and prepare for standa

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