Carry out an analytical essay in which they answer the follo…

Carry out an analytical essay in which they answer the following questions: What are the roles of children in the family and in the peer group in middle childhood? What are the characteristics of the developing self in middle childhood? What are common emotional problems in middle childhood? Use Erik Erikson’s theory



The Roles of Children in the Family and Peer Group in Middle Childhood: an Analytical Essay


Middle childhood, typically spanning from the ages of six to twelve, is a critical period in a child’s development. During this stage, children experience significant changes in their roles and relationships within both the family and the peer group. Understanding these roles and characteristics of the developing self in middle childhood is crucial for comprehending the emotional challenges children may encounter during this period. This analytical essay will explore the roles of children in the family and peer group in middle childhood, examine the characteristics of the developing self, and discuss common emotional problems using Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory as a framework.

Roles of Children in the Family and Peer Group

In middle childhood, children start to assume more responsibility and independence within their families. They often take on specific roles that contribute to the functioning of the family unit. According to Erikson’s theory, children in middle childhood strive to develop a sense of industry, working diligently to acquire skills and accomplishments, which are highly valued by their family (Erikson, 1950). These roles may include helping with household chores, caring for younger siblings, or contributing to decision-making processes. Children’s contributions to the family help foster a sense of belonging and develop a strong foundation for their identity formation.

In addition to their roles within the family, children in middle childhood also become increasingly involved in peer relationships. Friendships and peer groups become more influential. Peer groups offer opportunities for socialization, support, and the development of interpersonal skills. These relationships provide children with a sense of acceptance, cooperation, and the sharing of similar interests and experiences (Rubin et al., 2006). Within the peer group, children further develop their social and emotional skills, such as perspective-taking, empathy, and conflict resolution. In this context, children begin to explore their individuality and develop a growing sense of self.

Characteristics of the Developing Self in Middle Childhood

Middle childhood is characterized by significant cognitive and emotional development, which contribute to the formation of the self. According to Erikson’s theory, the primary psychosocial challenge of middle childhood is the development of industry versus inferiority (Erikson, 1950). Industry refers to the child’s ability to acquire new skills and competencies, whereas inferiority denotes a sense of inadequacy or incompetence. Successful resolution of this stage leads to feelings of competence and mastery, while an unresolved stage may lead to feelings of inferiority.

During middle childhood, children also engage in increased self-reflection and self-evaluation. They become more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and begin to compare themselves to their peers. This comparative self-assessment plays a significant role in the formation of their self-esteem and self-concept. Children who perceive themselves as competent and successful in various domains (e.g., academics, sports, social relationships) are more likely to have positive self-esteem, while those who experience repeated failures may develop low self-esteem.

Common Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood

As children navigate the challenges of middle childhood, various emotional problems may emerge. One common issue is anxiety, which can manifest as generalized worry, social anxiety, or specific phobias. These anxieties may stem from academic pressures, peer relationships, family dynamics, or the child’s own internal fears. Depression can also surface in middle childhood, characterized by feelings of sadness, low energy, and a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. Children may experience bullying or victimization, which can lead to heightened levels of anxiety, depression, and decreased self-esteem. Additionally, conflicts between children and their parents or peers may provoke anger and aggression.


In middle childhood, children assume crucial roles within the family and peer group, shaping their self-identity and contributing to their emotional well-being. Understanding the characteristics of the developing self and recognizing common emotional problems during this stage are vital for promoting healthy development. Erikson’s theory provides valuable insights into the psychosocial challenges and opportunities for growth that children experience during middle childhood. By acknowledging and addressing emotional challenges, parents, educators, and mental health professionals can support children in building resilience and developing a positive sense of self-esteem.

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