Complete the “Stress and Disease” chart that shows the asso…

Complete the “Stress and Disease” chart that shows the association between stress and disease. Be sure to include the following in the chart: 1. Physiological changes associated with stress 2. Long-term effects of stress on organ functions and body chemistry 3. Relationship between psychological variables and body chemistry, including the immune system



Title: The Association Between Stress and Disease: An Analytical Study

Stress is a complex physiological and psychological response triggered by various external stressors such as daily life events, work-related pressures, or personal issues. This response can have profound effects on the body’s organ functions and chemistry, leading to potential long-term health implications. This paper aims to explore the association between stress and disease by examining the physiological changes associated with stress, the long-term effects of stress on organ functions and body chemistry, and the relationship between psychological variables and body chemistry, including the immune system.

Physiological Changes Associated with Stress:
Stress activates the body’s stress response system, commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, triggering various physiological changes. The stress response is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system. These systems release stress hormones, including adrenaline, cortisol, and norepinephrine, which affect numerous body systems. Physiological changes include increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, heightened muscle tension, and increased respiration rate.

Long-term Effects of Stress on Organ Functions and Body Chemistry:
Chronic or prolonged stress can significantly impact organ functions and body chemistry. Continuous activation of the stress response system can lead to sustained higher levels of stress hormones, which can negatively affect vital organs such as the heart, gastrointestinal system, and immune system. Stress-related gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and weakened immune functions are among the long-term consequences of extended stress exposure.

Relationship Between Psychological Variables and Body Chemistry:
Psychological variables, such as stress levels, anxiety, and depression, can modulate body chemistry, including the immune system. Stress has been linked to dysregulation of the immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections, autoimmune disorders, and delayed wound healing. Furthermore, psychological distress can alter neuroendocrine and immune functions through intricate pathways involving pro-inflammatory cytokines, stress hormone receptors, and immune cell activities.

Understanding the association between stress and disease is crucial for comprehensive healthcare management. The physiological changes associated with stress, the long-term effects on organ functions and body chemistry, and the relationship between psychological variables and body chemistry contribute to the complex interplay between stress and disease. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and develop effective interventions to mitigate the detrimental effects of stress on human health.

Academic Sources:
1. McEwen, B. S. (2007). Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain. Physiological reviews, 87(3), 873-904.
2. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., & Turner, R. B. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(16), 5995-5999.

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