Im in need if 2 questions being answered tonight by 11. Need…

Im in need if 2 questions being answered tonight by 11. Need a paragraph for each question and  reference for each.. this is just a discussion question NOT an research paper !!!!! 1. Discuss optical issues that are important in criminology research 2. Why are the crime rates increasing around the world



Title: Optical Considerations in Criminology Research and Global Crime Rate Increase

1. Optical Considerations in Criminology Research
Optical issues play a crucial role in criminology research, as they directly impact the accuracy and validity of the data collected. One such issue is the use of visual identification techniques, such as eyewitness testimonies, which have long been recognized as fallible due to the limitations of human perception and memory. For instance, research has shown that witnesses may be influenced by various factors, including stress, environmental conditions, and inherent biases, leading to unreliable and potentially misleading accounts. To mitigate these issues, researchers have employed forensic sketch artists, facial recognition technologies, and other advanced tools to enhance accuracy and minimize bias in identification procedures.

Another important optical consideration in criminology research relates to the proper utilization of surveillance and monitoring systems. These optical tools, such as CCTV cameras and drones, provide valuable insights into criminal activities and patterns. However, their successful implementation requires careful consideration of factors such as camera placement, lighting conditions, image resolution, and angle of view. A failure to account for these optical variables may result in inadequate footage or insufficient clarity, thereby limiting the usefulness of the data collected.

1. Wells, G.L., Memon, A., & Penrod, S.D. (Eds.). (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Eyewitness Testimony. Oxford University Press.
2. Grieve, J., & Fitzgerald, S. (2016). Surveillance, Crime, and Social Control. Emerald Group Publishing.

2. Root Causes of Increasing Global Crime Rates
Understanding the reasons behind the worldwide increase in crime rates is a complex task, influenced by various socioeconomic, political, and cultural factors. Several key factors contribute to this phenomenon. First, rapid population growth and urbanization have led to overcrowding in cities, creating new opportunities for criminal activities. Additionally, heightened income inequality and poverty rates have pushed individuals towards illegal means to survive or attain their desired standard of living.

Another contributing factor is globalization, which has both positive and negative effects on crime rates. On the positive side, globalization has facilitated economic growth and improved living standards for many, reducing the motivation for certain types of crimes. However, globalization has also created new avenues for criminal activities, such as cybercrime and transnational organized crime, which exploit the interconnectedness of nations and the vulnerabilities of global systems.

Furthermore, political instability, corruption, and ineffective governance in some regions have created an environment conducive to criminal behavior. Weak law enforcement systems and a lack of accountability further exacerbate the problem. Meanwhile, evolving societal dynamics, including changes in family structures, cultural values, and moral norms, can influence the prevalence and types of criminal activities across different societies.

1. Durán-Martínez, A. (2010). Globalization, Criminal Transnationalism and Multilevel Governance. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 3(2), 392-405.
2. Anckar, D., & Alvesalo-Kuusi, A. (2019). Development Challenges, South-South Solutions: August 2019. United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation.

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