Solved: After watching the Reason video, “” (…

After watching the Reason video, “ ” ( describe some common mental models that exist within school organizations (K-12 and/or higher education). Also address the following questions:



Common Mental Models in School Organizations: An Analysis of K-12 and Higher Education


Mental models play a crucial role in shaping the decision-making and problem-solving processes within school organizations. These mental models represent the assumptions and beliefs held by both individuals and groups in relation to educational structures, policies, and practices. In this analysis, we will explore some common mental models that exist within both K-12 and higher education organizations. We will also address the following questions: How do these mental models influence the functioning of school organizations? What are the implications of these mental models on student performance and outcomes?

Mental Models in K-12 School Organizations

In K-12 school organizations, one common mental model is the traditional classroom model, which assumes that learning predominantly occurs through teacher-led instruction and memorization. This mental model emphasizes the importance of compliance and adherence to rules and regulations. It often overlooks the importance of student agency, critical thinking, and creativity in the learning process. Another prevalent mental model is the “one-size-fits-all” approach to education, which assumes that all students have the same learning needs and can be taught in the same way. This mental model undermines the importance of differentiated instruction, individualized assessment, and personalized learning environments.

Mental Models in Higher Education Organizations

In higher education organizations, one common mental model is the research-focused model, which assumes that the primary goal of universities is to produce research and publications. This mental model often undervalues the importance of teaching and student engagement. Another prevalent mental model is the prestige-driven approach, which assumes that the reputation and status of an institution are more important than the quality of education provided. This mental model can lead to a focus on attracting high-performing students and faculty rather than prioritizing the learning experiences and outcomes of all students.

Influence on School Organizations

These mental models influence the decision-making and functioning of school organizations in various ways. For instance, the traditional classroom model in K-12 organizations may result in a rigid and hierarchical approach to curriculum development and teaching practices. This can limit opportunities for student-centered learning, collaboration, and critical thinking. Similarly, in higher education organizations, the research-focused model may lead to a lack of emphasis on teaching quality and student support services. This can negatively impact student engagement, retention, and success.

Implications for Student Performance and Outcomes

The mental models prevalent in school organizations have significant implications for student performance and outcomes. In K-12 settings, the adherence to traditional classroom models and the one-size-fits-all approach can hinder student motivation, engagement, and retention. Students with diverse learning needs may feel alienated or disengaged from the learning process. In higher education, the research-focused model may result in limited opportunities for undergraduate students to engage in research experiences or receive high-quality teaching. This can impact their preparedness for the workforce and future academic pursuits.


In conclusion, mental models have a significant impact on the functioning and outcomes of school organizations in both K-12 and higher education settings. It is essential for educators and administrators to critically reflect on these mental models and consider alternative approaches that prioritize student agency, differentiated instruction, personalized learning, and the integration of research and teaching. By challenging these mental models, school organizations can better meet the diverse needs of their students and foster a more inclusive and engaging learning environment.

References (imaginary):

Author1, A. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page numbers.

Author2, C. D. (Year). Title of book. Publisher.

Author3, E. F. (Year). Title of chapter. In G. H. Editor (Ed.), Book title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

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