Solved: This discussion is on chapter 4 which covers probability the…

This discussion is on chapter 4 which covers probability theory. Please, discuss what is the difference between classical, empirical, and subjective probabilities and give examples of each.



Title: Comparing Classical, Empirical, and Subjective Probabilities: Definitions and Examples


Probability theory plays a crucial role in various fields, including statistics, finance, and decision-making processes. This discussion focuses on the differences between classical, empirical, and subjective probabilities. By examining each type of probability and providing examples, we can gain a deeper understanding of their practical implications.

Classical Probability Theory

Classical probability refers to the calculation of probabilities based on equally likely outcomes within a known sample space. It assumes that all outcomes have the same chance of occurring. For instance, when rolling a fair six-sided die, each outcome (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) has an equal probability of 1/6. Classical probability is often used in simple scenarios with well-defined outcomes, such as coin tosses or dice rolls.

Empirical Probability

Empirical probability, also known as experimental probability, relies on observed data and is calculated after conducting experiments or collecting data. This approach involves calculating the ratio of the number of times an event occurs to the total number of trials conducted. For example, if we roll a die 100 times and record the number of times a “6” is rolled, the empirical probability of rolling a “6” can be determined by dividing the number of times a “6” was rolled by 100. Empirical probability is particularly useful when dealing with real-world situations where the theoretical probabilities are not known or cannot be easily determined.

Subjective Probability

Subjective probability is based on personal judgment or beliefs about the likelihood of an event occurring. It involves assigning probabilities subjectively based on individual knowledge, opinions, and experiences. This probability type is used when there is insufficient data to calculate empirical or classical probabilities accurately. For example, if asked to estimate the probability of winning a game based on personal knowledge and intuition, an individual might assign a subjective probability of 0.45. Subjective probability can be influenced by individual biases and may vary among different individuals based on their perspectives and experiences.


In conclusion, probability theory can be approached from different perspectives, including classical, empirical, and subjective probabilities. Classical probability is based on equally likely outcomes and is often used in simple scenarios with known sample spaces. Empirical probability relies on observed data and experimental results, making it suitable for situations where theoretical probabilities are not readily available. Subjective probability involves assigning probabilities based on personal judgment and experiences, making it useful when data is lacking or difficult to obtain. Understanding the differences between these types of probabilities is crucial for accurate calculations and informed decision-making in various fields.


1. Ross, S. M. (2019). A First Course in Probability (10th ed.). Pearson Education.
2. DeGroot, M. H., & Schervish, M. J. (2011). Probability and Statistics (4th ed.). Pearson Education.
3. Jaynes, E. T. (2003). Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. Cambridge University Press.

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